Acne is a skin condition which has plugged pores (blackheads and whiteheads), inflamed pimples (pustules), and deeper lumps (nodules). Acne occurs on the face, as well as the neck, chest, back, shoulders, and upper arms. Although most teenagers get some form of acne, adults in their 20's, 30's, 40's, or even older, can develop acne. Often, acne clears up after several years, even without treatment. Acne can be disfiguring and upsetting to the patient. Untreated acne can leave permanent scars; these may be treated by your dermatologist in the future. To avoid acne scarring, treating acne is important.

Types of Acne and How Acne Forms

Acne is not caused by dirt. Testosterone, a hormone which is present in both males and females, increases during adolescence (puberty). It stimulates the sebaceous glands of the skin to enlarge, produce oil, and plug the pores. Whiteheads (closed comedones), blackheads (open comedones), and pimples (pustules) are present in teenage acne.

Early acne occurs before the first period and is called prepubertal acne. When acne is severe and forms deep "pus-filled" lumps, it is called cystic acne. This may be more common in males. Adult acne develops later in life and may be related to hormones, childbirth, menopause, or stopping the pill. Adult women may be treated at the period and at ovulation when acne is especially severe, or throughout the entire cycle. Adult acne is not rosacea, a disease in which blackheads and whiteheads do not occur.

Cleansing

Acne has nothing to do with not washing your face. However, it is best to wash your face with a mild cleanser and warm water daily. Washing too often or too vigorously may actually make your acne worse.

Diet

Acne is not caused by foods. However, if certain foods seem to make your acne worse, try to avoid them.

Cosmetics

Wear as little cosmetics as possible. Oil-free, water-based moisturizers and make-up should be used. Choose products that are "non-comedogenic" (should not cause whiteheads or blackheads) or "non-acnegenic" (should not cause acne). Remove your cosmetics every night with mild soap or gentle cleanser and water.

A flesh-tinted acne lotion containing acne medications can safely hide blemishes. Loose powder in combination with an oil-free foundation is also good for cover-up.
Shield your face when applying sprays and gels on your hair.

Treatments

Control of acne is an ongoing process. All acne treatments work by preventing new acne breakouts. Existing blemishes must heal on their own, and therefore, improvement takes time. If your acne has not improved within two to three months, your treatment may need to be changed. The treatment your dermatologist recommends will vary according to the type of acne.

Occasionally, an acne-like rash can be due to another cause such as make-up or lotions, or from oral medication. It is important to help your dermatologist by providing an updated history of what you are using on your skin or taking internally.
Many non-prescription acne lotions and creams help mild cases of acne. However, many will also make your skin dry. Follow instructions carefully.

Topicals

  • Your dermatologist may prescribe topical creams, gels, or lotions with vitamin A acid-like drugs, benzoyl peroxide, or antibiotics to help unblock the pores and reduce bacteria. These products may cause some drying and peeling. Your dermatologist will advise you about correct usage and how to handle side effects.
  • Before starting any medication, even topical medications, inform your doctor if you are pregnant or nursing, or if you are trying to get pregnant.

Special Treatments

  • Acne surgery may be used by your dermatologist to remove blackheads and whiteheads. Do not pick, scratch, pop, or squeeze pimples yourself. When the pimples are squeezed, more redness, swelling, inflammation, and scarring may result.
  • Microdermabrasion may be used to remove the upper layers of the skin improving irregularities in the surface, contour, and generating new skin.
  • Light chemical peels with salicylic acid or glycolic acid help to unblock the pores, open the blackheads and whiteheads, and stimulate new skin growth.
  • Injections of corticosteroids may be used for treating large red bumps (nodules). This may help them go away quickly.

Oral

  • Antibiotics taken by mouth such as tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, or erythromycin are often prescribed.